Feeds:
Posts
Comments

Archive for the ‘Management Lessons’ Category

For those interested in the art and science of management, here is a video clip which captures the journey of my book so far.

Feedback is welcome.

(Related Posts:

https://ashokbhatia.wordpress.com/2017/07/31/a-tale-of-two-countries-and-a-book-launch

https://ashokbhatia.wordpress.com/2017/10/01/surviving-in-the-corporate-jungle-some-comments)

 

Advertisements

Read Full Post »

Practising managers have had a look at it. Entrepreneurs – of the social as well as the anti-social kind – have gone through it. Management consultants have flipped through it. Eminent personalities have browsed through it. Academicians have devoured it.

Here are some of the comments received so far in respect of the book Surviving in the Corporate Jungle’.

“Behind the veil of humour and punch – there is a message. As the human drama unfolds itself in the corporate jungle, the best and worst of human natures battle for space.  Sure enough, the early warnings in the book might help the hapless to survive and the smart to succeed. However, buried in the crevices of the chapters lies a deeper secret. The secret of an inner tuning – developing an inner compass based on personal values that not just protects you but also guides you towards happiness and fulfilment. Most importantly, it helps you to use the right lens to see reality and truth as such, cutting through a smoky screen.”

Mr K. V. Rao

Resident Director – ASEAN, Tata Sons Ltd , Singapore

(Excerpt from the Foreword to the English version of the book)

 

“Here we have another work with a series of teachings based on the vast experience of a manager and consultant from the distant antipodes, whose admirable curriculum can be consulted in the work that deserves to be widely disseminated in Portugal, and which satisfies us that it will be part of the library of technical management works and insurance and sales techniques whose introduction to the Portuguese publishing market Liberty Seguros has been supporting.

What really surprised me the most is that management is really a universal science. That is, the formula for success, whether in India or in Portugal, in terms of the main vectors on which business philosophy rests, it is similar.”

Mr José António de Sousa

President and CEO of Liberty Seguros, Portugal

(Excerpt from the Foreword to the Portuguese version of the book)

 

“Mr Bhatia’s book soothes the frayed nerves of a manager with fresh insight in challenging situations.”

Mr Sandip Choudhury

Regional Finance Shared Service Lead (VP) North America, Mylan Inc., Southpointe, PA, USA

 

“Ashok’s book makes one think, smile and reflect over our organizational lives taking us by the hand with delightful kindness into a realm of effectiveness….”

Prof Jose Fonseca

Dean, School of Business and Social Sciences of Universidade Europeia of Lisbon, Portugal

 

“For those who worry too much about the managerial challenges in their careers, here is a ready reckoner which will not only provide a fresh perspective but also bring a smile to their frown.”

Dr Paul Griffiths

Strategy and Knowledge Management expert; Director, Latin America at Lafferty Group; Partner, Corporate Edge, Chile

 

“Whether for entrepreneurs or for career oriented managers, the book shows a fast 360° way to navigate the choppy waters in which Homo Organizationum operate.”

Mr Marco Paulo Abrunhosa Cardoso

A wisdom seeker, Kotka, Finland

 

“It is impossible to not to finish the book in 1 or 2 days. Revisiting the book reminds us about simple principles that have a huge impact! All of this with a great humour!”

Mr Miguel Dias

Founder & CEO, CEO World, Portugal

 

“A lot of great wisdom here by Ashok who has based his perspectives on many years of relevant, and sometimes difficult, experience. Well done.”

Dr Jack Jacoby

Master Strategist, Director, Corporate Repair, Mentor, Facilitator, Motivator, Troubleshooter, Australia 

 

“This book captures not only the strategic thinking but also the tactical skills required to navigate one’s way to success, inner satisfaction, happiness and most importantly – peace.”

Mr C S Dwivedi

Vice President – Manufacturing & Corporate Planning, HCL Infosystems Limited, India

 

“I found this book both entertaining and insightful. Lots of serious thoughts, couched in a somewhat light-hearted manner – this, and the succinct but sharp points, make it eminently readable. The format enables consumption in large doses, or even a few pages at a time: very useful in today’s time-stressed, short-attention-span world.”

Mr Kiran Karnik

Director, Reserve Bank of India; Chairman, Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology, Delhi; Former President, NASSCOM; Columnist and Author; His latest book is “Crooked Minds: Creating an Innovative Society”.

 

“The book is interesting. It is written in simple and lucid language and in a style of humour and fun.   From time to time cartoons appear and make reading the book that much enjoyable.

The book is unusual because it undertakes at least two difficult tasks simultaneously. The first task is to link management arts with management science – which a typical academic knows how difficult it is. The second task is to connect theory with practice. Accordingly, many an instance contain relevant references and quotes.

The biggest contribution of the book, however, lies in how inconspicuously but effectively the messages of values are enmeshed in the given instances or topics. While knowledge and skills can be taught, attitudes and values however cannot and ‘should not’ in a traditional sense be ‘taught’. The moment a value is ‘taught’ (“Be honest”, for example), the learner stops listening and questions silently, ‘Who are you to teach me’, ‘Are YOU honest?’ Knowledge and Skills are like the rivers Ganga and Yamuna, which are visible. Attitudes and values are like river Saraswati, which is invisible. Leading by example is the only instrument, therefore, for a teacher to ‘teach’ value .”

Prof G P Rao

Management Educationist, Founder Chairman (Honorary), SPANDAN Society, Hyderabad, India

 

“This is a unique book which covers a vast area of business management. In particular, it touches upon leadership, administration and refined concepts in the domain of human resources. The author deserves credit for having summed up his forty year long practical experience and present it in a crisp and humorous manner. One only wishes the language used was somewhat simpler in some parts, though.”

Mr R Mananathan

Chairman, Manatec Electronics, Puducherry, India

 

“Mr Bhatia’s book is replete with rich management lessons which would be useful to managers and business owners of all kinds. He also draws upon such of our ancient scriptures as Ramayana, Mahabharata and Thirukkural.”

Mr P Rangaraj

Chairman and Managing Director, Chemin Controls and Instrumentation, Puducherry, India

 

“I read this book through summer and liked it very much.”

Ms. Clara Nunes dos Santos

Ambassador of Portugal in Norway

 

“The book captures in light tone a very meaningful message for those in Management and Business. These days when people have “no time’, this book acts as a pill that awakens the dormant mind of the reader and gives him the needed gusto to face important issues in the day. It is a ready reckoner for the Management Leaders.”

Dr Ananda Reddy

Director, Sri Aurobindo Center for Advanced Research, Puducherry, India

 

“This one is a must read for all professionals, whether young or not-so-young. Beneath all the humour lies a deep spiritual connect. When the author speaks of values and ethics in business, he makes a profound statement. He also touches upon Circularity Leading To Sustainability, a concept which I, as a professional in the same field, strongly advocate myself. Gone are the days when managements could take an ostrich approach to such issues as global warming and environmental degradation. This book has multi-faceted messages. Those who read it are likely to feel as if they have just completed a distance education course in management.”

Mr Prakhar Goel

Manager, Peterson Projects B.V., Netherlands

 

“Ashok Bhatia’s compilation of gems of wisdom in the area of management comes as a pleasant surprise. As a seasoned meteorologist, I have survived many kinds of weathers in my own career and can readily identify with many of the thoughts expressed in his book. The youth of today can surely practice quite a few things mentioned in this book, as long as they ensure that their bosses have not had access to its contents!”

Mr Ashok Kalra

Chief Meteorologist, Indigo Airlines, Retired Wing Commander, IAF, NCR, India

 

“Great experience shared in simple but powerful way. I am really delighted AKB. All the best and I am sure readers will draw benefit.”

Prof Rammohan Pisharodi

Marketing Professor/Chief Editor, Alliance Journal of Business Research at Oakland University, USA

 

“The author has brought his rich corporate experience and wisdom in this book with simple messages. While most of the authors are serious while discussing the corporate practices with tons of do’ and don’t kind of advises, he presents the message with a sense of humor. I think he has covered almost all functions of management with the message to survive in the corporate jungle.”

Mr S Ganesh Babu

SME Business Transformation Consultant & Performance Coach, Pondicherry, India

 

“Few strengths of this book are short lessons, supporting pictures, quality references and unique solutions. If it is gifted in various programs in educational institutions to students, they will be prepared to enter the corporate jungle with a positive approach.

Self-evaluation, Enrichment, Discipline, Lessons learnt, Rights, Feedback, Training etc are some topics which can also be covered in the next edition.

A book worth reading and gifting to friends and students.”

Mr Dileep Bhatia

Nuclear Scientist turned Career and Values Counselor,

Rawatbhata, India

 

“Can teaching management to aspiring managers be also fun? Yes, thinks the author who sums up his four decade long experience in this delightful book. Capturing more than a hundred topics, often backed by appropriate illustrations, the book is easy on the nerves, even as it makes one exercise one’s grey cells in a meaningful manner. By highlighting the relevance of a manager’s Spiritual Quotient, it heralds the advent of a new age: The Age of the Spiritual Manager.”

Dr G Anjaneya Swamy

Dean, School of Management, Pondicherry University, Puducherry, India

  

“There are many hard-core management books written over the last five decades by logical die-hards, but not many from the kinder hearts.

One such in the recent past is this book. The beauty of this book is that it deals with every possible situation and topic that one is likely to come across while passing through the Corporate Jungle. The solutions provided are not in any copybook style but each one is distinct, much like Dhoni’s helicopter shots. These are quite breezy, short, and to the point. Some chapters get over just as you start in.

AKB’s experience of over four decades shows through the wisdom he conveys, often with a dose of subtle humour. The book is truly a light hearted reading in Management for all ages and races. May the Portuguese translation of this book be only the first of many translations to follow in other foreign languages.

Mr Hariharan Subramaniam

Industrialist, Author, Architect – Indian Institute of Governance, India.

 

“The short chapters make the reading quite easy and there are many insights shared by the author in such a small book. A lot of valuable points have been shared. The book is a treasure and I have no intentions of gifting it to someone I hate, as recommended by the author.

The chapters I liked the most: Consultants, Corporate Strategy, Interpersonal relationships and Promises.”

Mr Gowrishankar Sundararajan

Senior Director, Malaysia Blue Ocean Strategy Institute, Kuala Lampur, Malaysia.

 

“For those who eye the realm of management with a tinge of green hued envy, this book would be an eye opener, since it lays bare the kind of dirty tricks managers often play on each other. To those who are already a part of the crab basket phenomenon called management, it could provide some invaluable tips. Overall, a good read, with some profound lessons!”

Mr Sunil Jain

Chairman, Chemisynth, Gurugram, NCR, India

 

 

 

 

(This is how you can lay your hands on the Portuguese version of the book, launched in Portugal during March, 2016.)

 

(Related Post:

https://ashokbhatia.wordpress.com/2017/07/31/a-tale-of-two-countries-and-a-book-launch)

 

 

 

 

 

Read Full Post »

Ravana, an ardent devotee of Lord Shiva, was not only a great scholar but also a capable ruler. He had a great taste in music and had mastered the veena. He is said to have been an expert in astrology and political science. He is also believed to have written a treatise on Siddha medicine.

He is described as having ten heads which are said to represent his knowledge of the six shastras and the four Vedas. Folklore has it that even while lying on his deathbed, he imparted valuable wisdom to Lord Rama and Lakshmana.

Much like powerful CEOs of large corporate bodies, Ravana had the necessary knowledge and skills to steer his kingdom to great heights. But his sheer pride, arrogance and a tendency of stifling dissent did him in. His obstinacy, and intolerance towards dissent, eventually led to his fall from grace.

The fact that he coveted a woman who was someone else’s soul mate also led to his ruin. Popular belief takes a jaundiced view of his character since he had abducted Sita and had held her in captivity, thereby inviting the wrath of Lord Rama. His wife, Mandodari, brother Vibheeshana and grandfather Malyavaan – all advise him to return Sita to Rama. Instead, he chose to listen to his courtiers who played on his ego and pride and advised him not to do so.

Learning from Ravana

If CEOs of today were to take a leaf out of Ravana’s life, they would avoid becoming proud and arrogant. They would learn to be more tolerant and open-minded to views which do not match their own. They would run their fiefdoms with much greater finesse and grace, ensuring sustainable prosperity for all stakeholders to their business.

Getting rid of one’s ego does not necessarily mean that the CEO becomes a doormat. Or that he allows his team members to exploit the system and take advantage of his good intentions and decent behaviour. It simply means that he cultivates an ability to see the other person’s perspective before arriving at a decision; that a consultative and collaborative approach to decision making gets followed; that those who happen to be shy in a meeting are drawn out so he may check if they have something valuable to add to the issue on the table.

Consciously letting go of his pride is another quality they can cultivate. Privileges which go with a corner office can be readily forsaken. Exclusive car parking spaces can be given up. Preferential treatment in the common food court for employees can be politely declined. The barriers between himself and others can be lowered to the barest minimum. In all official proclamations, an ‘I’ can give way to a ‘We’.

Arrogance can get avoided. Instead, feigned anger can get used as a tool, either to defuse a tricky situation or to gently put in place a team member whose behaviour crosses the limits of decency.

Discouraging yes-men amongst their team members is yet another critical quality a CEO needs to develop. Encouraging healthy and objective dissent goes a long way in enjoying success in all spheres of life.

Respecting women in the workforce is another trait which is essential. Promoting a culture of zero tolerance towards harassment of the opposite sex helps a company to shore up its productivity and improve employee morale. Top achievers in the team cannot be allowed to act upon their amorous instincts at the work place.

Several qualities of Ravana are worth emulating by CEOs of today. Always striving to learn something new. Forever looking for new markets and new customers, much like Ravana harboured an ambition to conquer dev-loka, the heavens beyond. Tirelessly seeking different ways to achieve a goal. Adopting new technologies and cultivating an innovative mindset. Developing hobbies and interests which would help to keep a sense of balance in their lives.

The real victory is within us

This year, too, on the day of Vijayadashmi, we shall witness the burning of Ravana’s effigies and believe it to be the victory of good over evil. But would we stop for a moment to introspect and try to get rid of our own king-size egos? Would we resolve to let go of our arrogance and become good listeners, especially when someone like Vibheeshana is trying to tell us an unpalatable truth?

The day a CEO starts doing this would indeed be the true Vijayadashmi day for him!

(Related Posts:

https://ashokbhatia.wordpress.com/2013/05/27/management-lessons-from-ramayana

https://ashokbhatia.wordpress.com/2016/06/07/some-management-lessons-from-india

https://ashokbhatia.wordpress.com/2016/04/04/super-leaders-the-near-perfect-ceos)

Read Full Post »

Vacations

Not to be neglected. Do not give in to the temptation of believing that the whole organization would collapse in your absence. Plan for the same in advance and delegate while keeping your boss updated. You would be surprised to find that your team turned in a better performance while you were away to the Bahamas.

Companies like Daimler which facilitate a real ‘off’ from office would win in the long run. Incoming mails get deleted from your inbox and get diverted to someone else.

Before going off on vacation, an auto-reply mail along the following lines may come in handy:

‘Hi, I am on the Mars these days, missing Wi-Fi or cell signal, shall get in touch once I am back!’

The absence of a good manager is never felt, because his team is trained up so very well!

(Excerpt from my book ‘Surviving in the Corporate Jungle’, the English version of which was released recently. The Portuguese version of the excerpt follows.)

FÉRIAS

Não devem ser negligenciadas. Não ceda à tentação de acreditar que toda a organização entrará em colapso na sua ausência. Planeie as férias com antecedência e delegue as tarefas, mantendo o seu chefe informado. É capaz de ficar surpreendido ao constatar que a sua equipa teve um desempenho
melhor quando você estava ausente nas Bahamas.

Empresas como a Daimler, que facilitam um verdadeiro ‘desligar’ do escritório, ficam a ganhar no longo prazo. Os e-mails recebidos são apagados da sua caixa de entrada e reencaminhados para outro colega.

Antes de ir para férias, convirá redigir um e-mail de resposta automática, mais ou menos deste tipo:

“Olá, atualmente estou em Marte, sem Wi-Fi, nem rede detelemóvel. Entrarei em contacto consigo quando regressar!”

A ausência de um bom executivo nunca é sentida porque a sua equipa está muito bem treinada!

(This is how you can lay your hands on the Portuguese version of the book, launched in Portugal during March, 2016.)

Read Full Post »

Successful organizations which boast of high brand equity follow several sustainable practices. One of these is the practice of treating their human assets with the respect and dignity they deserve. While compassion and empathy govern their HR practices, it would be wrong to surmise that they do so by compromising on their business goals.

This unique species of organizations, referred to here as Homo Organizationum, is envisaged as the one comprising Functionally Humane Organizations, where an optimal balance is  maintained between business results and human relations.

Let me share one such instance from my own career.

High performance vs domestic bliss

A star performer in an IT manufacturing set up had to strike a fine balance between her role as a crucial final quality controller and that of being a home maker. In her absence, high priority shipments could get delayed. At home, she had to take care of an ailing mother-in-law and a kid. Her husband used to work in another set up around 900 kms away and would come visiting once every two months.

On a specific weekend, when an important shipment was to leave the factory late at night, message came that her husband was on his way home. Much to her dismay, a permission to leave the factory at the normal closing time was promptly turned down by her immediate superior.

The grapevine ensured that the incident of refusal of permission percolated upwards to the manufacturing head. The superior was called in without delay and given a dressing down. He, and the head of Quality Assurance, were guided on making alternative arrangements.

Eventually, the woman was delighted to receive a permission to leave the place of work by lunch time itself, adding a few precious hours to her domestic bliss. The shipment also got despatched without any compromise on the immediate business goal.

Several such examples abound. Regrettably, however, these are outnumbered by the kind of instances which involved blatant exploitation of employees. This manifested in so many ways. Inhuman treatment while pursuing an immediate business goal. Depriving the employees their rightful dues. Lower salaries, accompanied by liberal grant of personal loans and advances, thereby keeping the employees perennially indebted to the employer, and the like.

The leaner Davids and the flabbier Goliaths

When I look back at my 35-year exposure to the private sector, one thing stands out. The positive examples were mostly from the larger companies in the organized sector. The negative examples were invariably from the small-scale sector.

Large companies have a better organized way of working. They often carry some flab. Systems take precedence over individuals. On the contrary, the smaller ones tend to be much leaner – though decidedly not fitter – simply because one person gets hired only when three are required!

The Consciousness of Organizations

Members of the species of entities known as Homo Organizationum thrive only when they can add value to its diverse stakeholders. However, to create a brand which is respected by their customers as well as their employees, as also to add value on a sustainable basis, they need to have a working culture which places a higher premium on such values as empathy, compassion, dignity, respect, justice, honesty, openness, transparency and equality.

Their employees then become their brand ambassadors, making it easier for them to attract better talent. This, in turn, makes them more efficient and effective.

All organizations have a consciousness which seeps through all its organs. It manifests itself in myriad ways; specifically, through its culture. It is reflected in the manner in which the seniors conduct themselves. It shows up in the way decisions get taken. Unlike grandiose Vision and Mission statements which adorn their physical walls, it is not easy to articulate culture in words. Nor can it be readily replicated.

Just like a tiger is known by its stripes, an organization is known by the kind of consciousness it lives and operates by. The more humane the same, the higher the probability of sustainable success.

Some crystal gazing

Advances in technology are already re-shaping our organizations. Gone are the control-and-command structures. Hierarchies are getting flatter. Mundane tasks are being taken over by Artificial Intelligence and Robotics. Geeks are twiddling their thumbs, trying to cope up with Machine Learning, Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality, Internet of Things, et al.

Besides technology, buyer behaviour is changing. Geopolitics is changing. Workforce attitudes are changing.

But Homo Organizationum face little risk of becoming extinct. On the contrary, it is quite likely that with the kind of changes in the offing, the need for organizations to be humane would only go up in the future.

Time for HR honchos to re-skill themselves.

(A version of this article was published in the IBA Journal, volume 9, issue 2)

 

 

 

Read Full Post »

Most of the management events we get enticed to attend are very much alike. Somebody gets up and introduces the chair person and the speaker of the evening. Then, the chair person mumbles a few words designed to cheer up the speaker. The speaker of the evening then goes on to describe at great length what he thinks of the scandalous manner in which private sector managements behave or exposes the inefficient goings-on in the public sector.

The hapless soul tasked to chair the session makes sympathetic observations about the subject at hand. He makes brief notes in a studious manner. Later, he uses these to wrap up the proceedings as quickly as norms of society, dictates of behavioural sciences and standards of politeness would allow.

The speaker of the evening is invariably dressed in an impeccable corporate style. This is merely to mask the inner shivering he experiences at the prospect of facing a firing squad. Externally, he exudes confidence. Internally, he is all of a twitter. Unfortunately, many speakers are blissfully unaware of the technique of public speaking unwittingly perfected by Gussie Fink Nottle of P G Wodehouse fame – that of getting adequately braced with generous helpings of a strong tissue restorative prior to delivering a speech.

While he tries his best to convey some serious messages to the unsuspecting audience, he also attempts to induct some humour into the otherwise listless and sombre proceedings. This helps him to sugar-coat his dull message to the unsuspecting audience.

The audience upon which the speaker’s verbosity is unleashed listens in a state of polite resignation, often suppressing a yawn or two. With an eye on the wrist watch and a nose trying to detect the faint aroma of snacks and coffee being served outside the lecture hall, they bide their time, hoping for the ordeal to end soon.

From time to time, some members in the audience rise and ask carefully rehearsed questions, which get answered fully and satisfactorily by the speaker. Often, when a question gets asked in the pure spirit of proving to the assembled group that the questioner is smarter than the questioned, the latter either ignores him, or says haughtily that he can find him arguments but cannot find him brains. Or, occasionally, when the question is an easy one, he answers it.

When the discussion gets out of hand, and the speaker is found to be twiddling his thumbs, the chair person rushes in to conclude the affair, thereby bringing joy and relief all around.

The speaker is delighted that he has been rescued just in time and looks upon the chair much like a typhoon survivor would look upon the US marines when they arrive to rescue him from a disastrous situation.

The audience is happy that the trauma is finally over. They look forward to grabbing the vitamins laid outside the hall, so as to keep their body and souls together and also to overcome the state of depression induced by the presentation.

The organisers breathe easy, having saved their furniture and other items from any damage. Someone from their side quickly offers a vote of thanks to all and sundry, lest the speaker change his mind and go on to bore the audience any further.

A smoothly conducted management meeting is one of our civilization’s most delightful indoor games. When the meeting turns boisterous, the audience has more fun, but the speaker a good deal less.

The book presentation session at Madras Management Association recently was true to form in more ways than one. Save and except for the following:

– Being chaired by an exceptional business person who is practising the art of true social responsibility.

– The presentation of some portions of the book was more of an interactive session which never tended to be boisterous.

– There was a singular absence of any rehearsed questions from the audience.

The session had attracted around forty odd souls who suffered the trauma of listening to yours truly and others for about forty minutes or so. Perhaps Einstein’s Theory of Relativity kicked in and these forty minutes felt like forty hours to them, because when it was time for the Q and A, they pounced on an inwardly shuddering yours truly with much glee.

As luck would have it, much light was generated in the discussion that followed the brief presentation. The heat generated was perceptibly less; thus, no fire alarms went off in the lecture hall. The brainy coves assembled for the evening proved their mettle by coming up with astute observations and insightful comments. An enlightened soul in the audience even went on to enquire as to what precisely is meant by Spiritual Quotient, and what could be done to shore it up.

Leadership styles got discussed. Tips on managing Lion Bosses got shared. Dignity of women at workplace came in for a mention. The delicate art of dishing out selective favours to those who really deserve support was brooded upon. Several other topics of contemporary interest were discussed, including the recent boardroom battles which played out at Infosys and at Tata House.

One is grateful to Madras Management Association for having provided this opportunity to share one’s thoughts with their brainy members and honourable invitees.

(Related Post: https://ashokbhatia.wordpress.com/2017/07/31/a-tale-of-two-countries-and-a-book-launch)

Read Full Post »

There are Lion King bosses who epitomize terror at the work place. Insulting and demeaning you is second nature to them. As long as the task is in your hands, it would be top priority; once it reaches their own desk, you may not hear of it for the next two months. Some of them have agricultural inclinations – a suggestion made by you would get rejected with much fanfare, in full public view; after six months, it would sprout as ‘their’ idea and get marketed to the top brass.

Fight or flight? If you are sure of your ground and stand up to them once in a while, heavens will not fall. You could end up dealing with a less aggressive boss in the days to follow. The flight option gets linked to the status of the industry as well as your own Unique Selling Proposition in the job market.

When under such a boss, bide your time and hope for a better planetary configuration to emerge in the days to come. Or, quietly work through the grapevine to have alternate relationships and collaborations within the company, so the immediate boss’ sins get exposed to others who might be able to do something about it.

(Excerpt from my book ‘Surviving in the Corporate Jungle’, the English version of which was released recently. The Portuguese version of the excerpt follows.)

Read Full Post »

Older Posts »